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- QUEEN ELIZABETH I
- QUEEN ELIZABETH I BIOGRAPHY
- Elizabeth I, known as the Virgin Queen, was the daughter of King Henry
VIII and was the Queen of England from 1558-1603. Elizabeth I was a DIPLOMATIC GENIUS, who
made England into a major world power.
- "I may not be a lion, but I am a lion's cub, and I have a lion's
heart" - Elizabeth I
- Elizabeth I was born in Greenwich Palace, near London, on September 7, 1533.
Before Elizabeth was born, her father, King Henry VIII
was married to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, but only had one
child, a daughter, named Mary. Demanding to have a son, he wanted to annul the first
marriage and marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope refused and Henry VIII decided
to change the religion of England from Catholic to Protestant, just to marry Anne Boleyn.
The "Church of England" was therefore established, making
England a Protestant country. Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, had
a daughter, named Elizabeth. Disappointed with having another daughter and not a son,
Henry VIII ordered Anne Boleyn to be beheaded on the charge of adultery in 1536 before
Elizabeth was 3 years old. Henry VIII was then free to marry another woman, his
third wife, Jane Seymour and had a son, who was named Edward.
- Elizabeth had excellent tutors as a child and was well versed in French, Italian,
English, Greek and Latin. When Elizabeth was 14, in 1547, King Henry VIII died and
Elizabeth's half-brother, Edward became King Edward VI.
Then in 1553, when Edward VI died at the age of 16, Elizabeth's half-sister Mary,
became Queen. Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII's first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and
was Catholic. Mary, known as "Bloody Mary,"
persecuted the Protestants and tried to re-establish Catholicism in England, with the help
of King Philip II of Spain, her husband. Mary and Philip suspected that
Elizabeth, who was a Protestant, was trying to seize the throne. In 1554, following the "Wyatt's
Rebellion" (a Protestant uprising), Mary had Elizabeth imprisoned in the Tower
of London, although Elizabeth had no link to the rebellion. Elizabeth was later
let go to live in the country.
After Mary died in 1558, Elizabeth was next in line to become Queen
of England. The people loved her and Elizabeth was crowned Queen
Elizabeth I in 1559 at the age of 25. Mary had already plunged England into a
costly war with France and the country's treasury was empty. England hoped Elizabeth would
bring back peace and prosperity and stop the persecution of the Protestants. Queen
Elizabeth I was an extremely intelligent and a powerful diplomat. She was an incredibly
popular queen and reminded people of King Henry VIII, with her red hair and brilliant
speaking abilities. Elizabeth I also chose genius advisors, which included the brilliant
Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir William Cecil (later named Lord
Burghley), who was cautious and conservative like Elizabeth. Elizabeth relied on their
wisdom and guidance for forty years.
- Queen Elizabeth I Accomplishments:
- -Ended the war with France and was a diplomatic genius in handling
- -Brought back the Church of England, by signing law called the "Religious
- -Refused to ever marry. She used her single status as a tool in foreign
policies and used courtship as part of her diplomatic game.
- -Sent an army to help Protestants in the Dutch
Netherlands to fight the Spaniards.
- -Destroyed the "Spanish Armada" when the Spaniards came to
- -Dubbed herself "The Virgin Queen" after
dedicating herself to be married to England.
- -Encouraged English literature and world exploration.
- -Sponsored the establishment of a colony in the New World and
Sir Francis Drake's voyage around the world.
- -Encouraged Sir Walter Raleigh to send settlers to America, setting up
the great colonial empire-later becoming THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
- This period was kown as the "Elizabethan Age" or the "Golden
Age." England's economy prospered and Elizabeth I's court became the center
for musicians, writer and scholars, such as
William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon,
Christopher Marlow and Edmund Spenser. Alexander Forbes,
Ph.D in English literature, said about Edmund Spenser's epic poem,
"Faerie Queene": "Tribute to Queen Elizabeth – she is the model
for the Faerie Queene herself. At the time of the writing of the poem,
she was challenged not only as a Protestant monarch, but as an unmarried
female who ruled alone without a male consort. England, under its
unmarried Queen, its absolute monarch and general, is that strongest of
all institutions – an actual matriarchy!"
- Queen Elizabeth I died on March 24, 1603 at the age of 69. The
popular queen, who against the odds of being a female, made England into a prosperous
world power, was buried in England's famous Westminster Abbey.
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